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1 . 0 OBJECTIVE
This kind of experiment relates to determination of rock strength when a particular load intended on the rubble. Students should have the ability conducted the experiment, learning the theory and recognize the rock durability on several types of rocks in Malaysia.
2 . 0 LEARNING OUTCOMES
a) To ascertain a ordinary strength about different types of ordinary formation in Malaysia. b) To evaluate the physical real estate of rubble for city engineering app. c) To understand the theory ordinary test.
three or more. 0 THEORY
Rebound sludge hammer test can be undertaken applying Schmidt's hammer L-type (N-type for cement material). Test procedure is straightforward and machines are portable and straightforward to operate. Check can be undertaken on site and the number of test can be unlimited. Check can be carried out on the surface of irregular stop or, about core selections does not involve destruction of sample (minimize sample usage). Index value obtained can be rebound quantity (R), which can be an indication on the amount of hardness of rock surface area being analyzed. Rebound sludge hammer test is generally used in calculating the compressive strength of joint area in rock. The value of Ur can be used to approximate the compressive strength of rock using the following formula (Franklin, 1989):
Log10 JCS = 0. 00088(Оі)(R) + 1 . 01
Wherever, JCS (MPa) is the compressive strength of rock area; Оі is unit excess weight of rock (kN/m3). The word JCS means joint compressive strength, which in turn implies the area strength of joints (fracture planes) in rock. Therefore rebound sludge hammer test could also be used to calculate the surface strength of joint in addition to rock obstruct sample. For fresh rock and roll (weathering class I), JCS is approximately equals to the UCS of the mountain material. Basically when ordinary is not really weathered, the surface compressive strength is approximately equals to the strength of its material composition (usually measured by UCT). 5. 0 TOOLS AND COMPONENTS
1 . Recurring Hammer (L-type)
2 . Steel Bottom
three or more. Calibration Anvil
4. Abrasive Rock
5. zero CALIBRATION
1 . Ahead of each screening sequence, the hammer is definitely calibrated by using a calibration evaluation anvil given by the manufacturer. 2 . The calibration is placed anvil in the main holder and conduct eight readings around the anvil. a few. The static correction factor can be calculated by simply dividing the manufacturer's regular hardness benefit for the anvil by average in the ten psychic readings taken within the anvil.
6th. 1 SAMPLING
1 . Drill core specimens should be NX (54 mm) or perhaps larger primary art in least 12-15 cm long. Block specimens should be have got edge lengths of for least 12-15 cm. Ordinary surfaces tested in place, which includes natural outcrops or ready surfaces including tunnel walls or floor surfaces, should be have got a smooth, flat test region at least 15 cm in diameter. 2 . Trials should be associated with the ordinary to be examined. Samples is obtained simply by direct sampling of subsurface rock units with core borings or perhaps by sample blocks of rock materials from outcrops that correlate with the subsurface rock unit of interest. In surface outcrops, sampling and testing rock material destabilized is averted by weathering or alteration or can be otherwise unrepresentative of the ordinary material interesting. 3. The rebound sludge hammer is generally faulty for incredibly soft or perhaps very hard mountain. Simple discipline tests will be conducted to quickly assess a rock and roll material's suitability for the rebound hammer test method. Rock is scratched incredibly soft having a fingernail and peeled using a pocket blade. An unchanged specimen of very hard rock breaks only by repeated, heavy produces with a geological hammer and cannot be scraped with a common 20d metallic nail.
6. 2 EXAMPLE OF BEAUTY PREPARATION
1 . For a block or core specimen, its size is determined by taking the average of 4 lengths tested at several equally spread points for the circumference and record to the nearest your five mm. 2 . For a obstruct or core specimen, their diameter depends upon taking the typical...