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Slender Lenses Laboratory Report

 Thin Lens Lab Statement Essay

 Fischer Esterification – nucleophilic substitution effect

Strong acid solution catalyst (concentrated sulfuric acid solution

Purpose of a reflux is to heat a chemical reaction mixture in its boiling heat to form products, without losing one of the compounds inside the reaction flask TO HAVE GREAT PERCENT YIELD: As reaction is invertible, removal of normal water or the addition of an more than one of the reactants (cheaper one) drives the response towards development of ester. (Excess carboxylic acid is definitely used) � Adding extra carboxylic acid is favored as it is simpler to separate carboxylic acid and ester when compared with removing drinking water � solvent used can be (ClCH2CH2Cl), as water can be insoluble inside the solvent, so reverse effect will not come about � using concentrated acidity as catalyst rather than aqueous drives balance to the correct Reactivity of alcohol: CH3OH > main > extra > tertiary > phenol In the reaction, no anion can can be found, as it is in acidic state, or acid will behave Why dilute the reaction mixture after refluxing? When it is diluted, the ester will be deprotonated anion and so unreactive as electrophiles Why sodium bicarbonate is added? To remove surplus carboxylic chemical p and sulfuric acid in mixture Why add section? Brine is usually added to take out any drinking water in the combination as the by item Anhydrous sodium sulfate is added to dried the ester

For IR spectrum:

� 1740. 51cm^-1 (C=O solid absorption shows there is a great ester) � 3500-3100 cm^-1 (lack of broad O-H peak shows substance is not alcohol)

Wittig Reaction – regiospecific (only trans product is becoming generated

The solvent is DMF because it is a polar (aprotic) solvent that will dissolve the ylide form. It is also accustomed to dissolve the organic and inorganic item. � NaOH is used to deprotonate to form the ylide. NaOH has a more acid H than n-BuLi� Color change could be seen in that case ylide is...

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