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CHAPTER 2:

A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

" The future probably will belong to all those organizations that never end asking, `How can we better organize and manage yourself? '" (Galbraith and Lawler, 1993. )

2 . 1 ) INTRODUCTION

What determine managers' choice of conversation media? So why do managers prefer to employ one communication media more than another? In the domain details system and communication study there exists a substantial body of theories that explain manager's media choice. The purpose of this kind of chapter is to review the theories on media choice and to determine the insufficiencies of these ideas.

2 . 2 . EARLY RATIONAL THEORIES

Theories on mass media choice tend to be through the rational and individual way of thinking. The first theory is definitely the social occurrence theory of Short, Williams and Christie (1976). This theory emphasises the psychological aspect of employing communication multimedia: media choice hinges upon the ability with the media to share the nature of the partnership between the communicators. In this regard, conversation media can be defined as warm, personal, sensitive or perhaps sociable.

A few years later, Silly and Wington (1979) suggested a language variety theory to explain multimedia choice. That evolved from the idea that certain media, such as portrait or music, are capable of offerring a larger range of ideas, meanings, thoughts compared to mathematics. Such mass media have a higher language selection. This resulted in the suggestion that terminology variety must be matched while using communication task. Equivocal and complex interpersonal tasks are said to demand a medium with high terminology variety.

Naturally, this is not directly applicable to manager's choice as they tend not to use painting or music as a imply of connection, but this kind of notion lays the foundation intended for media richness theory. This is how the discussion will certainly turn to following.

2 . three or more. MEDIA RICHNESS THEORY[1]

The previous two ideas are fragmented and non-comprehensive. With mass media richness theory a much larger picture of media choice emerged. Daft and Lengel (1984, 1986) were the first to propose the media richness theory.[2] The media richness theory is known as a general theory that points out managerial behaviors as well as organizational design.[3] It has become one of the most well-known and extensively studied types of media choice because of its well structured and intuitive structure.

2 . three or more. 1 . Original Formulation

Media richness theory establishes a framework that ranks interaction media along a continuum in terms of all their " richness". In this framework, " richness" denotes the capacity of the multimedia to: (i) carry large volume of data, and (ii) convey which means.[4] More specifically multimedia richness identifies the ability in the media to alter human understanding, overcome diverse conceptual frames of reference, or explain ambiguous issues in a timely manner (Daft and Lengel 1984, 1986). Thus, the place that the mode of communication gives new substantial understanding it is considered " rich"; or else, it is " lean".

Several criteria (the original criteria) were utilized by Daft and Lengel (1984) to classify interaction media along the continuum. These are generally summed in Table 2 . 1 .

These criteria denote the features of wealthy media; all their attributes impact upon man understanding and frame of reference (Daft and Lengel 1984, 1986). Consequently, interaction media obtaining more features of the criteria will rank higher on the richness scale compared to one possessing significantly less. For example , using these requirements, oral media (eg. face-to-face and telephone) are believed being richer than written press because they offer opportunities to get immediate responses and can include multiple tips in a natural language tailored to the circumstances. Commonly, synchronous media (ie. with immediate feedback) are considered wealthier than asynchronous media (ie. involve delay in the interaction process). And so telephone was ranked less than face-to-face since it can transmit fewer tips...

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